A hybrid strain of CO.1 of Lablab niger was evolved and released for general cultivation in the year 1967. Though this new strain was generally considered to be non-season-bound, no experimental data were available to confirm this. A trial was, therefore, conducted for studying its behaviour by sowing the seed on 15th of each month from January to December covering all the 12 months of the year. Trial was conducted successively for two years.
The vegetative growth of the plants as judged from the height of the plants and number of branches were the best when the crop was sown in July and August followed by April and May. The crop sown during November and December had poor growth. The duration from sowing to flowering did not show much variation. However, the crop sown during January, February, and March took the maximum period of 50–55 days to flower. The crop sown during December, January and February had the shortest duration (110–114 days) while that of September had the longest duration (123 days). Percentage of seeds damaged by pod borers was maximum with the crop sown in October and November (36.1 and 36.5%, respectively). The minimum damage was with the crop sown in May and June (25.5 and 26%, respectively).
Higher yields were obtained in the crop sown during April–May and July–August, synchronizing with the summer and monsoon seasons, respectively. However, the January sown crop yielded the least. During the other months, a normal yield pattern was noticed with minor variations.
Scarification of seed is not required as percentage of hard seeds is very few. In monocultures, the seed rate is 12–20 kg/ha. Rows should be 80–120 cm apart with 30 –50 cm between plants when planted with grasses, seed rate should be 5–8 kg/ha. It will not establish readily in the existing pastures without some form of soil disturbance. Germination is quick if seed quality is good. It is common to grow Lablab without fertilizer application. But sandy soils require application of phosphorus and sulphur and it is also beneficial if lime is applied in acid soils.
When used for forage in large areas, Lablab is often sown with annual grasses such as annual sorghums and millets and such mixtures can be strip-grazed through late summer into autumn. Light grazing to remove leaf only will prolong the productive life of Lablab pasture. In small farms, Lablab can be intercropped with maize. Lablab should be sown 28 days after the maize to avoid severe cereal crop yield depression from composition.
Companion species are sorghum (Sorghum spp) and millets (Pennisetum glaucum). Summer cereal crops are maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (S.biocolour). In Brazil, it is sown with Panicum maximum pastures. It is reported as a weed in cropped areas in some humid-tropical locations where individual plants may live upto 3 years, but no report as an environmental weed.
Seasonal yields of 2 t/ha leaf or 4 t/ha stem and leaf are common in sub-humid tropics. Dry matter yield is usually higher than for cowpea, particularly under drought conditions. For human nutrition 2–7 t/ha green pods. In monoculture 1–2.5 t/ha of dry matter depending on cultivar.
Lablab is highly sensitive to 2,4-D, M.C. P.A., 2,4-D-B and decamba.
Its strengths are that it is a dual purpose crop and can be used with cereals in small holder systems. Can be sown with summer grass crops to provide a mixed forage crop system. Forage quality is high. It improves the soil fertility as a green manure crop. It is drought tolerant once established. High grain yields and better resistance to root diseases than cowpea.
Its limitations are it is an annual or short-lived perennial, poor frost–resistance, host to pest attacking field beans, and indeterminate flowering, leading to extended seeding period in current cultivars.
The other advantages are that it has a considerable potential as a multipurpose legume in crop-livestock systems where rotations are possible.
This investigation was taken up to assess the nutrient needs of Dolichos in red clay to any soils of the central Farm, Agricultural college and Research Institute, Coimbatore in 1966-67 and 1967-68 with three levels each of N, P and K in 33 confounded design with two replications. The levels of nutrients applied were 0,9 and 18 kg of N and P2 O5 per acre and 0,11,36 and 22.72 kg per acre of K2O. A basal addition of 10 tonnes farmyard manure was also made. The improved variety CO.4 (DH. 453) was sown and after a month, a pandal of uniform size of 9 square meters for each treatment was erected and the vines were trailed on them.
The observations were made on number of flower bunches in each treatment, weight of green pods and final weight of green pods and final weight of vines after harvest per treatment.
The correlation between the number of inflorescence bunches and yield of pods was positive (r=0.52**). This gives an indication that production of more number of flower bunches in the vine is an important factor for increasing yield.
The weight of vine and its total yield were positively correlated (r=0.43**), which shows that weight of vine also has a bearing on the yield.
The results of the first year crop indicated that there was no significant increase in yield due to application of NPK. In the second crop, the results indicated that there was significant response to phosphorus application. However, the yields from plots manured with farm yard manure alone had the highest yield and this was on par with the plots applied with P2 O5 at 18 kg / acre.
Ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) and CCC (2-chloroethyl) – trimethyl ammonium chloride) applied as foliar sprays and added to nutrient solution were tested in a solution culture experiment involving 32P as KH2 PO4. Both chemicals, and foliar spray, enhanced 32P content in leaves and stem. When added to nutrient solution, inhibition of 32p incorporation was similar for both chemicals. Both the chemicals when applied through foliage, roots accumulated more of 32P over a certain range (upto 100 ppm). Increasing concentrations, irrespective of chemicals used, had more inhibitory effect.
Grain and forage production of six accessions (Rongai, HighWorth, T58/13, CPI 31113, CPI 41222 and CPI 60216) of Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus) were measured over two seasons in the Ord irrigation area. All accessions were quantitatively short–day plants, flowering during the early dry season (May–July). Forage yields at flowering were generally unaffected by sowing date for sowings made between December and February, but declined with later sowings. There were marked differences between accessions in the forage yield at flowering and the peak yield of 8.6 t/ha was obtained with a December sowing of accessions T. 58 / 13; this comprised 3.6 t/ha of stem containing 3.7 % nitrogen and 5.0 t / ha of stem containing 1.1 % nitrogen. The uptake of nitrogen by the tops between sowing and flowering ranged upto 1.8 kg/ha. d (1.94 kg N in 108 days) indicating the potential value of Lablab as a green manure crop. Grain yields ranged from 0.27 to 3.05 t/ha over all sowing dates and accessions with the peak yield being obtained in a February sowing of cv. HighWorth. All accessions became smaller and bushier as sowing was delayed. This facilitated harvesting for grain. Cutting and removal of foliage at the onset of flowering led to rapid regrowth and renewed flowering and gave grain yields upto 90% of those obtained from undefoliated treatments. The cultivar HighWorth was the best for grain production and for dual purpose–forage and grain production.
A field trial was conducted at Hisar to study pod yield and several other characters in nine cultivars. Out of these, HD 18 gave the best overall performance, followed by DH 60. These two cultivars had high pod yield, 182.6 and 173.3 q/ha, respectively, coupled with high values for number of pods/plant, harvest index, early yield and pod quality.
Silages composed of Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cynodon dactylon cv. 68 or Pennisetum purpureum cv. Taiwan A–144 alone or with L. purpureus with no additives or final molasses or formic acid were fed to wethers in metabolism cages. Grass legume ratios were 60:40. The use of legumes significantly increased crude protein content and fermentative quality. Intake of P. maximum silage by wethers was 44.5 g DM/kg live weight 0.75, with increments of 15% due to the inclusion of legume and 60% with molasses and 40% with formic acid. With C.dactylon, higher intake was seen only with mixed silages containing molasses (53.7 vs 63.2 g DM/kg live weight 0.75); no effect was seen with Pennisetum purpureum (48.4 g DM/kg live weight 0.75). N balance was positive in all treatments. According to the results, it was concluded that P. maximum and C. dactylon were the most suitable grasses for the inclusion of this legume.
Trials on water harvesting techniques were carried out in July 1981 and 1982 in a semi–arid region of Haryana. Seeds of the cultivar HD–60 (grown for green pod production) were sown in 4 different ways and the effects of these treatments on plant height, number of pods/plant, weight of pods/plant, yield/plant and soil moisture % at a depth of 90 cm at the end of the trial, were assessed. All indices studied were greatest where the seeds were sown in paired rows in furrows 70 cm apart with 1.1m wide ridges between them. In all cases, spent oil was sprayed on ridge slopes to prevent seepage of rain water into the slopes and induce it to flow into the bottom of the furrows where the crop was grown.
Lablab bean or hyacinth bean has been cultivated in India since earliest times. The crop is photoperiodically responsive; both long– day and short–day cultivars exist. Day–neutral accessions were also reported in Australia. Both field and garden varieties exist in India. In Bangladesh, the crop remains available in markets for a short period from November to March. These reports indicate that these cultivars are all short-day plants and that long–day cultivars are not commercially viable.
Dwarf varieties (determinate bush–type) have a potential for more extensive cultivation of the crop, because: (1) the plants require no support system, (2) the pods mature uniformly and (3) the crop is amenable to mechanical harvesting. All of these reduce cost and labour. The disadvantage of the bush–types is that their yields are less than those of the normal twining cultivars.
The present investigation was undertaken to clarify the growth habit of a dwarf variety of Lablab bean plant under different environmental conditions. It is clear that the determinate growth habit of the plant is controlled by the environment, probably photoperiod, temperature or a combination of both. Dwarfness of plants is commonly recognized to be genetically controlled, independent of external factors.
That the plants flowered when the plants were exposed to photoperiods of 11 to 15 hours and that the numbers of days from seeding to flowering were affected depending on the day–length may indicate that the plants used in this study may well be facultative short–day plants. Low temperature effect on flowering of the plant should be considered because, the second experiment was conducted in the fall to winter season. Flowering induction of short–day plants by low temperature under long–days has been recognized not only in leguminous crops, Lablab bean cv. Rongai and winged bean but also in tobacco and begonia.
Results of the second experiment revealed that the increase in plant height after exposure to more than 13 hr day-lengths is attributed to the increase in the number of internodes and not to the increase of internodal lengths, especially those of the lower internodes. The temperature was nearly the same in any day–length treatment so that number of internodes may be a function of photoperiod rather than those of temperature. Although the mean number of internodes increased at 15 hr day, it was considerably less than that of plants growing under natural longest day–length of June–sowing. Thus the temperature also seems to have a role on the number of internodes. The data suggest that day–length and/or temperature control determinate growth habit of the plant, a phenomenon which should be examined to clarify whether photoperiod and/or temperature controls the length and number of internodes. Control of morphogenesis by light quality should also be considered.
To cultivate the determinate type of Lablab bean in Japan, it has been found that when the seeds are sown in mid–May the plants will assume a determinate growth habit, require the shortest number of days to flower and give fairly good yields. If seeds are sown in late fall to early spring, the growth will be slow. When sown in summer to early fall, the growth will be twining.
D. Lablab [Lablab purpureus] line HCOOLO grown in the 1987-90 rabi [winter] seasons at Joydebpur, Bangladesh was given different combinations of 0, 30 or 60 kg P2O5, 0, 50, 100 or 150 kg K20, 0 or 20 kg S, 0 or 5 kg Zn and 5 or 10 t FYM/ha. Except for no-fertilizer controls, all plots received 15 kg N/ha. Compared with controls, all fertilizer treatments increased pod yield. Yields in each of the 3 growing seasons were highest with 60 kg P2O5 + 100 kg K2O + S + Zn + FYM.
In field trials in red ferrallitic soil in Cuba in 1989–90, L. purpureus was sown into 1 and 7–year–old pastures of Cynodon nlemfuensis in late March and mid– February, respectively, in rows 90 cm apart at rates 10, 20 or 30 kg seed/ha following cutting and cultivation with a subsoiler, rotary plough or harrow. Over 2 cuts in 1990, yield was higher (3.18 t/ha) with harrowing than subsoiling (2.61 t/ha) or ploughing (2.70 t). Yield of mixed sward was lower than from the grass alone. Although DM yields of (L. purpureus) varied significantly with sowing rate all values were low since competition from C. nlemfuensis was strong. None of the cultivation techniques gave adequate soil preparation or sowing depth.
In the field trial on a red ferrallitic soil in Cuba in 1989, P. maximum cv. Likoni was sown at the rate of 1 kg germinable seed/ha in rows 90 cm apart simultaneously or 10 or 20 days before the sowing of L. purpureus at the rate of 10, 20 or 30 kg seed/ha between the rows. Swards were cut 75 days after sowing and again after a further 60 days. The highest DM yield of L. purpureus (4.45 t/ha) was given by sowing 20 kg L. purpureus/ ha 20 days after sowing Likoni. Highest total DM yield (12.41 t/ha) was given by sowing 20 kg L. purpureus/ ha 20 days after sowing Likoni, but under this combination, DM yield of L. purpureus was only 0.74 t. CP content of both the species was unaffected by treatment and averaged 18.3% and 10.8% in legume and grass components, respectively. Percentage cover of Likoni was not affected by inter – cropping treatment and it is recommended that 20 kg L. purpureus/ha should be sown simultaneously with Likoni to give the best combination of yield and legume content of the sward.
In field experiments at Shambat, N. Kartoum in 1987, sorghum cv. Pioneer and L. purpureus cv. Lubic were cropped singly and intercropped by broadcasting, row inter– cropped and alternate hole intercropped. FW, DW, plant height, number of tillers, number of internodes and LAI were all greatest with intercropping. Stem diameter, CP, CF, DM and ash percentage were highest in single crops or sorghum or L. purpureus. It was concluded that intercropped sorghum and L. purpureus performed better than pure stands and that row intercropping produced better quality and higher yields.
In field trials in Cuba, L. purpureus was sown at the rate of 10, 20 or 30 kg/ha into a field of Cynodon nlemfuensis previously sown 0, 10 or 20 days earlier. Although increasing sowing rate from 10 to 30 kg/ha, yield of L. purpureus 70 days after sowing from 1.1 to 2.1 t/ha, total DM yield was unaffected; increasing yield of L. purpureus was accompanied by lower yield of C. nlemfuensis and reduced invasion by weeds. Contribution of C. nlemfuensis to total DM yield was increased and yield of L. purpureus greatly reduced by delay in sowing. The benefits to nutritive quality of introducing a legume species into the sward are briefly discussed together with optimum dates and rates of sowing.
The effects of cropping system, nitrogen application and harvesting stage on the quantity and quality of the forage produced by Sudan grass-Lablab mixtures were studied in central Sudan. Mixing of both the crops increased the number of tillers per plant of Sudan grass and the dry weight of both the crop plants. Application of nitrogen increased the number of tillers and dry weight per plant of Sudan grass, but has no significant effect on the growth parameters of Lablab. Growth parameters of both crops have appreciably increased when harvesting of Sudan grass is done at the milk-ripe stage. The largest total dry matter yield was obtained from a mixture of 20 kg Sudan grass and 40 kg Lablab per hectare. But the largest protein yield was obtained from Lablab.
Dolichos lablab grown at Rajendranagar in Andhra Pradesh in 1991–92 winter season was water–stressed or unstressed, and given cobalt nitrate by seed treatment (500 mg/kg seed) and/or foliar application (500 mg/litre). The combination of cobalt nitrate as seed treatment + foliar application resulted in the highest total dry matter accumulation per plant due to increase in crop growth rate (CGR). CGR was decreased by water– stress. Seed yield was decreased by water–stress. Seed yield was decreased by water–stress and was increased by cobalt nitrate both in stressed and unstressed conditions.
A field experiment was conducted during summer 1994 at Bangalore to study the performance of various herbicides and hand weeding in L. purpureus. Hand weeding twice at the third and sixth week after sowing gave the highest seed yields (878.4 kg/ha), and the best herbicide treatments were pre–emergence metolachlor at 0.75 kg/ha and fluchloralin at 1.0 kg/ha. Acanthospermum hispidum, Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus were not controlled by the herbicides.
The responses of 2 extremely early Dolichos Lablab cultivars Changbiandou – 1 and 2 to urea application (267 kg/ha prior to flowering in mid–May) and different plant spacing (45, 70, 95 and 120 cm in rows, 150cm apart) were investigated in 1997. Plants were transplanted on 16th April and monitored until 24th June. Fresh weight of pods was measured at 5 day intervals from 15 June to 17 August. Changbiandou–1 was approximately 10% taller than Changbiandou–2. Fertilizer application had no significant effect on crop yield compared to an untreated control. Planting at 45 cm increased yield significantly. The highest yielding cultivar/spacing combinations during early, mid and late cropping periods were Changbiandou–1 at 45 cm for all periods, Changbiandou–2 at 45 cm in early and mid–cropping periods, and Changbiandou–1 at 70 cm in the early cropping period. Only in the early cropping period these yields were significantly higher than other treatments.
An experiment was carried out in Mymensingh, Bangladesh during May, 1991 to April, 1992 to investigate the phenology and fruiting behaviour of 3 advance lines (DSC-1-6/S1, DSC-1-6/S-2 and DSC-1-6 (S) of Lablab bean (L. purpureus) cross in F6 generation and their parents. The parental genotypes were DS-21-B (local) and DS-109 (Japanese). The test genotypes were sown on 3 dates, i.e., 15th May, 1st July and 15th August 1991. Results revealed strong interaction of sowing dates with genotypes for flowering and fruiting characteristics. The flowering time in the local parental genotypes gradually decreased with delay in sowing date due to photoperiod sensitivity and timely fixed behaviour. The exotic parent and 3 selected advance generation (F6) lines showed periodically fixed and photoperiod neutral behaviour. The effect of phenology showed that the local parent produced maximum flowers but incurred maximum flower abortion. The edible pod yield of the local genotype also varied widely with sowing dates, but remained statistically unchanged in the exotic genotype as well as in the advance lines. Among 3 sowing dates, July sowing was the best for pod production. May sowing produced the highest percentage of edible pod protein.
This study was designed to investigate trade–offs between forage yields, feed quality and labour–use in fitting a newly introduced crop, Lablab purpureus into an existing farming system, adopted distinct applied and adaptive research approaches. The applied research component compared forage yields, nutrient contents and feeding qualities of L. purpureus harvested at 100, 114, 128 or 142 days after planting in an on-farm trial. The adaptive research investigated how farmers incorporated L. purpureus cultivation into their farming calendar given the constraints of labour for planting and harvesting. Harvested dry matter yields from the on-farm experiment were 1.28, 1.98, 1.74 and 1.44 t/ha. The resultant hays were fed to four groups each of five Bunoji lactating cows in an on-farm feeding trial over a 10–week period. Ranking the various harvests for yield, the hays for feed value, animal responses to the feed consumed and the quality of animal responses to the feed consumed and the quality of animal products on a linear scale (1 to 4) to estimate a composite utility index, showed that harvesting at 114 days after planting gave the most desirable overall benefits. The survey for adaptive research showed bimodal rainfed and irrigated cultivation patterns for L. purpureus. Peaks were observed in September (31% of farmers) and November (24%) for planting and in December (39.4%) and March (15%) for harvesting. Forage yields were, however, highest for the 3% of the farmers who afforded labour to plant in July and harvest in October. The lack of congruence between forage yield periods and the peaks of cultivation of L. purpureus by farmers in the study area was mostly explained by very significant differences in the cost of hired and household labour in different months. Thus, socio-economic and cultural factors, including stakeholders’ participation, need to be considered along with applied research results when recommending forage species for farmers adoption.
A trial was conducted in Minas Gerais, Brazil to determine the effects of sowing dates of velvet bean and Lablab bean intercropped with maize, on maize cv. Cargill – 125 productivity. Velvet bean and Lablab were sown 75 and 100 days after maize sowing on 12th July 1994. Maize was supplied with 250 kg/ha of 4 – 30 – 10 NPK fertilizer, while velvet bean and Lablab were not. The dry matter of velvet bean was higher than Lablab in intercrop and the highest productivity was obtained when velvet bean was intercropped with maize at 75 day after sowing.
The yield and composition of maize and Lablab leaves under a Lablab – maize cropping system, as affected by sowing sequences, was studied in Kupang, Timor, Indonesia. The treatments consisted of sowing maize solely (control), sowing Lablab and maize simultaneously and sowing Lablab 2, 4 or 6 weeks after sowing maize. Lablab improved the chemical composition and quality of maize and Lablab leaves for animal feeding. Sowing Lablab 2 weeks after maize gave the highest Lablab dry matter yield and leaf crude protein and ash contents as well as the highest yield and leaf crude protein and crude fibre contents in maize.
The benefit of planted fallow with legume cover–crops may be limited on P deficient soils. A trial was conducted at two P deficient sites in Northern Nigeria to test the hypothesis that application of P to legume cover–crop fallow can substitute for N application to subsequent maize. Main plots consisted of leguminous fallows followed by unfertilized maize or native (mostly grass) fallows followed by maize with 0 or 40 kg N/ha and 0, 30, 60 kg N/ha. Three rates of P, 0, 9 and 18 kg/ha were applied to fallow sub-plots as single superphosphate. In the first year, dry matter accumulation of Lablab purpureus responded to P application, while mucuna (Mucuna cochinensis) dry matter did not. Lablab mulch drymatter during the dry season was significantly increased by previous season P application while mucuna was not. Previous fallow vegetation was a significant factor for maize growth in the second year. But the interaction with P applied to the fallow was not significant at P< 0.05. Substantial and similar yield increases were achieved with application of N fertilizer to maize and from application of 9 kg P/ha to previous Lablab. Depending on local economic circumstances, a good use of expensive inorganic fertilizer might be to apply P sources to cover crop legumes to profit from additional N benefits as well as residual effects of applied P.
Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai was grown in two 6 month field experiments in the Savannah region of Africa with high rainfall and hot temperatures in the first two months, followed by low rainfall and cool temperatures until harvesting in January. The experiments evaluated the effects of plant population density (PPD), using rows at 70 cm, 110 cm and 150 cm intervals, on the yield and nutritive value of the crop and the effect of an interim harvest on response to PPD. Lablab yield per hectare was increased to greater extent for double harvested than for single harvested plants. This suggested that high PPD in the early stages of growth is important to promote high crop yields in this environment, probably because it mitigates drought effects in autumn. The effects of PPD on herbage composition were small and suggested that plant maturity had not been greatly affected by density. It is concluded that the maintenance of plant cover in the early stages of growth is important for high yields in the Savannah region, which can be achieved by an inter – row spacing of no more than 70cm and avoidance of an interim harvest.
An experiment was conducted over two years in Bauchi in the Sudan Savannah zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of L. purpureus plants grown in sandy soil and shed leaves to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, applied alone or in combinations. No responses in plant dry matter (DM) yield were seen in the first year to any fertilizer combination. Applying both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers increased the yield of shed leaves, but adding potassium negated any advantage and also reduce plant modified acid–detergent (MAD) fibre levels. In year 2, no response to any fertilizer was obtained. Sodium concentrations in both harvested plants and shed leaves were considerably below the requirements for ruminant growth or lactation, but tended to be increased by NPK fertilizer. In both years, the CP and P levels in shed leaves increased by most fertilizer treatments that contained phosphorus. It is concluded that, as consistent benefits in DM yield or plant composition were not observed, the application of N, P and K fertilizers cannot be recommended in these circumstances.
Two experiments on Lablab purpureus were sown on different dates in July and August to evaluate the effects of sowing date on the yield and nutritive value of the plant and shed leaves. From each of the experiments, an interim harvesting was done on half of the plants and regrowth recorded. The interim harvest reduced the total yield and in particular that of shed leaves. In one of the two experiments, late sowing resulted in a considerable reduction in yield, increased crude protein and reduced modified acid-detergent fibre concentrations. Ash concentrations were higher in plants sown later and their shed leaves. Sodium concentrations were inadequate for ruminants and, like phosphorus concentrations, tended to decrease with later sowing. However, both calcium and magnesium concentrations increased with later sowing and were sufficient for ruminant production. Potassium concentrations were high and were little affected by sowing date. It is concluded that both an interim harvest and late sowing are disadvantageous when Lablab is grown for ruminant livestock, the former because of yield reduction and the latter because of yield reduction, increase in ash concentration and reduction in sodium and phosphorus concentrations.
Lablab purpureus was grown in two field experiments in consecutive years to evaluate the effects of timing of an interim harvest on the yield and nutritive value of the harvested material and the subsequent regrowth, which was determined from the second and final harvest. Delaying the first harvest to 50–70 days post–sowing increased the total (first + second harvests) dry matter yield (DMY), with greater first harvest and reduced second harvest DM yield. The delay also reduced the crude protein concentration of the first harvest and tended to increase its modified acid–detergent (MAD) fibre concentration. The delay increased the crude protein concentration and decreased the MAD fibre concentration of the second harvest. The total crude protein yield of both harvests increased with late interim harvesting. The first harvest plant calcium concentration increased and phosphorus concentration decreased with a delay in the interim harvest. It is concluded that, in the difficult growing conditions of the Sahelian zone of sub Saharan Africa, delaying the interim harvest of Lablab purpureus until 50–70 days post-sowing will have beneficial effects on total dry matter and crude protein yields.
Lablab purpureus (50 cultivars throughout the world) is a drought – tolerant legume, widely grown as a high protein grain food and forage legume with in a wide range of neotropical regions with extensive production in India and similar climates of Asia, Africa, Central and South America. The objective of this pot experiment was to study the nitrogen fixing potential of L. purpureus under the effect of extreme environmental condition prevailing in the Southern part of Egypt aiming at the recommendation of its propagation in areas of the national giant projects. L. purpureus inoculated with Rhizobium species strains 14 (21 days after planting) grown in Nile valley and Wadi Allaqi soils was relatively tolerant to mild levels of salinity, but the nodule number was reduced to – 35% of the control plants when subjected to high salt level (120 mM NaCl). Lablab plants were similarly affected by different rates of water deficits. This legume was tolerant to moderate levels of drought. The nodule number and weight at 50% of field capacity was – 70% of the control. These values were reduced to 45–55% at a field capacity of 16.5%. Absolute nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodules and protein content of bacteroides and cytosol were moderately affected by mid levels of NaCl and drought, but significantly reduced to about 25 – 35% of the control treatments. The results also indicate that plants grown on the soil of Nile valley exhibited slightly higher values (nitrogenase, protein, etc.) than those grown on Wadi Allaqi soil. This would encourage the possibility of propagating L. purpureus in the newly reclaimed areas of Southern Egypt.
Research was conducted over three seasons (1996-97, 1997-98 and 1988-99) to determine the productive potential of green pods in first year plants, studying two production cycles, using a local accession of the botanical variety albiflorus DC of Dolichos Lablab L. (Egyptian bean). In the first experiment (1996-97), cropping was done in pots with peat substrate in a polyethylene greenhouse; the transplanting dates were 17th September (F1) and 21st January (F2). In the other two experiments, cropping was done in a sandy–loam soil in glass houses; in the second experiment (1997-98), the transplanting dates were 20th October (F1) and January (F2), while in the third experiment (1998-99), the transplanting dates were 17th September (F1) and 11th January (F2). Plants were placed in rows 1 m apart with 0.5 m between them. Plants were staked and tied. The immature pods were harvested twice a week. The accession used in these experiments adapted well to protected cultivation. The green pod yield obtained (95,200 kg/ha) is much higher than those reported for beans under identical growing conditions in the field (28,000 kg /ha). Transplanting in September allows for high yield, green pod harvesting year round, even in autumn and winter. Continued experiments are necessary to determine the performance of this plant in subsequent years.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the production of forages, integral forages and grains of Canavalia ensiformis, Lablab purpureus and Stizolobium niveum in September plantations. There was interaction for all the agronomical characters evaluated, which enabled to compare the species in each production alternative. In forage production, DM and CP, yields were higher (P<0.001) for mucuna in whole plant (8.82 t DM/ha and 1.1 t CP/ha) as well as for its leaves and stems. In integral forage mucuna (4.79 t/ha) and jackbean (4.39 t/ha) had the highest (P<0.05) DM yields for whole plant and the leaves + pod components, while mucuna surpassed (P<0.05) the rest of the species in stem yield. In CP yield for whole plant, jackbean (0.71 t/ha) and mucuna (0.60 t/ha) were better (P<0.05) than Dolichos. Mucuna showed the highest (P<0.01) CP yield for the stem component, while leaves + pods did not vary among the crops. DM and CP for grains (2.57 to 3.41 t/ha and 0.65 to 0.92 t CP/ha) and pods without grains (1.21 – 1.98 t DM and 0.14 – 0.19 t CP/ha) did not vary among the species, while in crop residues, jackbean was relevant (P<0.01) (7.62 t DM/ha and 1.01 t CP/ha). The agronomical potential of these legumes for grain production was proved, when sown in September, because they developed normally in terns of flowering and pod formation. Despite the yields obtained in integral forages, production accounts for the sowing of these crops in September, the low production in Dolichos and mucuna and instability in mucuna for forage yield limit the use of this sowing time for this productive alternative.
A field experiment was conducted in Onne, Nigeria during 1998 and 1999 cropping reasons to study the influence of Lablab on maize grain and fodder (Stover) yield. Lablab was simultaneously sown in maize the same day and also undersown in maize at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after maize planting (WAP) while sole maize and sole Lablab were used as control. Simultaneously planting reduced maize grain yield by 40–63% relative to the sole maize crop while higher grain yield was obtained when under sowing of Lablab was delayed beyond 2 WAP. Unlike maize grain yield, highest Lablab dry matter fodder yield was obtained when maize and Lablab were simultaneously sown, and declined progressively with delayed undersowing of Lablab while maize fodder yield was not affected by the time of Lablab undersowing. Time of Lablab undersowing positively influence total fodder (maize + Lablab) yield. When fed to livestock, rate of digestibility was higher in Lablab fodder than the maize fodders, indicating that Lablab fodder enhanced the digestibility of Lablab–maize forage. Undersowing of Lablab in maize not later than 4 WAP effectively controlled weed infestation in the intercrops than under–sowing later.
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season in Rajshahi in Bangladesh to evaluate the productivity of Lablab bean cv. BGB–12 when intercropped with letuce (Lactuca sativa), puishak (Basella alba), stem amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus [Amaranthus tricolour]) or onion (Allium cepa). Sole crops of each of these species were also maintained. BGB.12+Letuce intercropping showed a better performance than the other combinations and sole crops in terms of gross returns (taka: 628–785/ha), net return (taka: 298–590/ha), benefit: cost ratio (1.90) and land equivalent ratio (1.98). BGB–12 + puishak recorded the highest net return, but showed a relatively low benefit: cost ratio (1.80).
A field experiment was conducted in 1999-2003 in northeastern Poland, to compare 6 weed control methods (two mechanical, two chemical and two biological) for the protection of faba bean against pathogens. The application of foliar herbicides was the most effective method in protection of field bean against diseases, whereas traditional mechanical weed control was found to be the most effective in complex protection of this crop.
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2004 on medium deep black clay soils under rainfed condition at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, to study the response of field bean genotypes to date of sowing and plant population for fodder production and quality. The treatments consisted three genotypes (Hebbal-3, Mani avare and Local avare), two date of sowing (second fortnight of July and first fortnight of August) and two seed rates (125 and 150 kg ha-1). The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with three replications.
The field been genotypes Mani avare recorded significantly higher green forage yield (26.88 t ha-1) and dry matter yield (5.97 t ha-1) compared to local avare (22.30 and 4.91 t ha-1, respectively) and Hebbal-3 (13.71 and 3.17 t ha-1, respectively). Mani avare also recorded significantly higher growth parameters at harvest viz., fresh weight (179.72 g plant-1), total dry matter (39.92 g plant-1), dry matter accumulation in leaves, stem and reproductive parts and LAI.
Forage quality parameters viz., crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and total ash were not influenced significantly by the genotypes.
Sowing in second fortnight of July recorded significantly higher growth and yield attributes, green forage (22.10 t ha-1) and dry matter yield (4.94 t ha-1) compared to August first fortnight sowing. Date of sowing did not significantly influence the fodder quality and palatability.
Seed rate had no significant influence on growth yield, fodder quality and palatability of field bean. Significantly higher interaction was recorded in Mani avare sown in July second fortnight at 125 kg per ha seed rate for green forage yield (27.77 t ha-1), net returns (Rs.12723 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.89).
An experiment was conducted in the kharif season of 2004. Variety used was Konkan Bhushan. There were 30 treatment combinations with two PSB seed treatment (with and without), three levels of phosphorus (30, 45 and 60 kg/ha) and two growth regulators (NAA 50, 100 PPM) and (TIBA. 25. 50 PPM). Replicated thrice and laid out in RBD with factorial design. Field bean seeds treated with PSB applied with 60 kg P2 O5 per hectare and foliar spray of NAA at 100 PPM at flower initiation stage increased plant height (63.86 cm), number of branches (7.27), number of trifoliate leaves per plant (6.27), plant dry weight at harvest (22.74g), flower number (136.3), pod number per plant (39.8), per cent pod setting (28.87), seed number per pod (3.96), hundred seed weight (32.39 g), seed yield per ha (1,265 kg), shelling percentage (69.16), seed recovery percentage (94.73), germination percentage (97.25) and seedling vigour index (3508) compared to untreated seeds with 30–45 kg phosphorus per ha and NAA 50 PPM, TIBA 25 or 50 PPM, and water spray, respectively. The present study indicated that field bean seeds treated with phosphate solubilizing bacteria at 25 g per kg seeds gave 3.6 per cent increase in the seed yield over untreated seeds. Application of 60 kg P2 O5 per ha. recorded 9.2 and 19.0 per cent increase in seed yield compared to 45 and 30 kg per ha, respectively. NAA 100 ppm at pre–flowering stage recorded 26 per cent increase in seed yield compared to control without spray.
In the context of evaluating different legume species for the sustainable crop and livestock production systems in moist Savanna Zone of West Africa, 46 accessions of Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet were evaluated between 2000 and 2002 at Smaru, Zaria in the northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria to identify the accessions with the potential to contribute to grain or forage production and those with the potential for multiple use. Grain yields (0.6–2.4 t/ha) with a mean seed crude protein and phosphorus content of 25.3 and 0.46g/ kg, respectively, were obtained. Dry matter yields (leaf: 0.3–3.1, stem:0. 2–4.6, root: 0.03–03 t/ha) were produced between 40 and 140 days after planting. Within this same period, upto 1,152 kg shoot crude protein/ha, equivalent to 184 kg N/ha were recorded for accessions. Ten accessions that may contribute to grain production, eight accessions that may contribute to forage production and six accessions with drought tolerance were identified. Some white–seeded accessions (Grif 1246, ILRI 4612 and PI 183451) with good grain and forage yield and high protein content have the potential to provide more and higher quality food for people and feed for livestock. The observed potential to contribute to grain production for protein-rich food, feed for livestock and green manure for soil N improvement suggests Lablab may be an acceptable legume option for use in cereal–legume-livestock system in the moist Savanna Zone of West Africa.
The traditional natural fallows are no longer practicable in sub-Saharan Africa and technologies to replace them are being popularised through management of short fallow systems. Dolichos [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] is among the legumes used to improve such fallows and its residues are incorporated to improve yield of succeeding cereal. Two field studies were conducted to determine Dolichos residue mineralisation schedule and response of maize to timing of the residue incorporation, to establish if the current residue incorporation practice maximises nutrient benefit to succeeding cereal. Dolichos residue was applied at 2 t/ha in litterbags, buried in the field at 15-cm depth and retrieved after 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, and the remaining debris analysed for loss of weight, N, P and K. A parallel split-plot experiment was set up to determine response of maize to time of residue incorporation, with or without fertiliser nitrogen supplementation. The main plot treatments were nitrogen fertiliser applied at 0, 30 and 60 kg/ha at sixth fully opened leaf in maize. The subplot treatments were residue management regimes, which included four residue incorporation times of 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks before sowing maize, residue removal off the field, residue mulched on surface and traditional weedy fallow. Results show rapid loss of N, with 50% being released within the first 2–4 weeks after burying. Residue incorporated at 2 and 4 weeks before sowing improved maize yield, while residue removal off-field reduced yield comparably with the traditional weedy fallow. However, there were no statistical differences among the timing of the Dolichos residue incorporation. These results reflect poor synchrony of mineralised N and uptake by succeeding maize as currently practiced and suggest residue incorporation closer to sowing maize to benefit the cereal.